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Spiritual rulers of Tibet: 1642-1912 AD

From about 1562 Tibet has been controlled by a self-made dynasty of kings, the Gtsang-pa. In 1642 a Mongol army removes them, and the khan presents the country to the Dalai Lama as a spiritual gift. The abbot is to rule it with Mongol military support.

In keeping with his new status, the fifth Dalai Lama moves his official residence to Lhasa and begins the construction of a palace - the Potala - on the site of the castle of the first historical king of Tibet, Srong-btsan sgam-po. The pattern of rule by the Dalai Lama, with military support from elsewhere (the Manchu dynasty in China later takes the Mongol role), lasts till the demise of the Chinese empire in the early 20th century.

Nine Unknown Men

Nine Unknown Men are a two millennia-old secret society founded by the Indian Emperor Asoka.