According to a mythological legend, Ram, during his Vanvas stayed in Dakshin
Kosala, which is the modern day Chhattisgarh. The unbroken history of
Chhattisgarh or of South Kosala can be traced back to fourth century AD and its
mythological history goes back as far back as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.
A popular Rajput family which called themselves the Haihaya dynasty ruled this region. This dynasty continued ruling Chhattisgarh for six centuries and then it split into parts, the elder branch continued at Ratanpur, while the younger settled in semi-independent state at Raipur. In Bastar, in the middle ages, Chalukya dynasty established its rule.
The Marathas attacked Chhattisgarh in 1741 and destroyed the Haihaya power. In 1745 AD after conquering the region, they deposed Raghunathsinghji, the last surviving member of the Ratanpur house. In 1758, the Marathas finally annexed Chhattisgarh, it came directly under Maratha rule and Bimbaji Bhonsle became its ruler.
In 1818 Chhattisgarh came under some sort of British control for the first time. The British made certain changes in the administrative and revenue systems of Chhattisgarh, which adversely affected the people of Chhattisgarh. The intrusion of the British was resisted strongly in Bastar by the tribals and the Halba rebellion which lasted nearly five year (1774-1779) was the first documented rebellion against the British in Bastar.
The First war of independence in 1857 was invoked in Chhattisgarh by Vir Narain Singh who was a benevolent jamindar of Sonakhan. The British arrested him in 1856 for looting a trader's grain stocks and distributing it amongst the poor in a severe famine year. In 1857 with the help of the soldiers of the British Army at Raipur, Vir Narain Singh escaped form prison. He reached Sonakhan and formed an army of 500 men. Under the leadership of Smith, a powerful British army was dispatched to crush the Sonakhan army. The British succeeded after a prolonged battle and Vir Narain Singh was arrested and later hanged on the 10th December, 1857. He became the first martyr from Chhattisgarh in the War of Independence.